A couple of days ago, I tried again, and was finally able to log into my phone. I didn't do anything other than wait a couple of days, then try again making sure I typed each character slowly to make sure I had no mistakes.
The only thing is make sure your username includes the @gmail.com
In the web, you don't need it, but I think it might be in the phone app. I could have sworn I had tried it both ways on my phone, but who knows. I am happy it's working now.