Do I need permission from Google to do this >> Well, who collected the data? If Google did, potentially (it would be nice at least). However, my guess is the person who published the document probably collected the data. Is there any info on who collected the data? Perhaps a copyright or names mentioned on the spreadsheet?
Perhaps you could share the link you are referring to, and we can help you figure out what to do. There may be a way based upon what you provide to contact the owner for permission. Also, you should definitely reference them in any documentation that you used their data.